Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can cause several birth defects.
The spectrum of alcohol-related diagnoses includes:
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE)
PFAS (Partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrome)
ARND (Alcohol Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder)
ARBD (Alcohol Related Birth Defects)
All of these birth defects are entirely preventable.
Birth defects can happen to anyone, regardless of age, race or socioeconomic status.
FAS three criteria for diagnosis
1) Characteristic facial features
Thin upper lip
Short eye slits
2) Growth retardation
Lower birth weight
Disproportional weight not due to nutrition, height
Weight below the 5th percentile
3) Central Nervous System Abnormalities "neurodevelopmental"
Impaired fine motor skills,
Mental handicap (found in 50% of FAS)
To diagnose PFAS, only two of the three above criteria must be present and must include some facial features and brain differences.
To diagnose ARND, only one of the above three criteria must be present and must be a brain difference.
These fetal alcohol effects are often thought to be less damaging than the "full-blown" syndrome, however, they are often more debilitating to the person's quality of life.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Fetal Alcohol Effects are PERMANENT and cannot be outgrown.
FAS/FAE babies and young children may have other specific distinguishable features:
Small and thin
Difficulty with eating
Difficulty developing a regular sleeping schedule
Difficulty learning how to walk
Difficulty learning toilet training
Impulsivity (i.e. running out into the street)
FAS/FAE children have learning disabilities, which include
Difficulties in learning language and language use
Difficulties in generalizing information
Difficulties in mastering new or recently learned skills
Difficulties in recent memory (ie. yesterday events)
Difficulties inpredicting outcomes or cause and effect
Difficulties indistinguishing fact from fantasy
Difficulties in distinguishing friends from strangers
Donot learn from experience as they
Do not understand cause and effect
FAS/FAE adults continue to have the same learning difficulties they had as youth, and also often have difficulty with:
Legal system (do not understand cause and effect)
Controlling alcohol consumption
Maintaining custody of their children
Mental health issues
Dr Youssif 33
Dr Youssif 34
Dr Youssif 35
Dr Youssif 36
Alcohol in Pregnancy